Aviation English Reference List

This is a list of references for Aviation English course and test developers, researchers, teachers, and examiners.

If you wish to be notified of new additions to this list, please subscribe to this blog via e-mail (see box on the right).

If you spot any problems, you can leave a comment. Please note, however, that the links are but a bonus. Like hearts, they’re easily and often broken. It is impossible to keep track of the many changes on third-party websites, so I advise you paste the reference into your search engine of choice.

Last updated on January 17, 2022.

With the help of ERAU’s LHUFT bibliography.


  • Babboni, C. (2017). Atividades de pronúncia em livros didáticos de Inglês Aeronáutico: Reflexões sob o prisma de falantes de português brasileiro. [Pronunciation activities in Aviation English textbooks: Reflections considering Brazilian speakers of English] (Master thesis). Universidade de Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo.
  • Bajaj, B. (2020). Human factors in risk communication: Exploring pilot-controller ‘communication awareness’. In F. Federeci & Sharon O’Brien (Eds.), Translation in Cascading Crises. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Balogh, J. (2008). A case for automation in Aviation English language assessment. Retrieved from Pearson Assessments.
  • Balogh, J., Bernstein, J., Suzuki, M., Subbarayan, P., Lennig, M. (2006). Automatically scored spoken language tests for air traffic controllers and pilots10th Global TRAINAIR training Symposium. Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Baral, SR. (2015). Use of metaphor in aviation English: An experientialist approach. A PhD thesis proposal. Singhania University, Raj., India.
  • Baral, S. R. (2016). Metaphor in specialized terminology: The aviation English evidence. A Bi-annual South Asian Journal of Research & Innovation, 2(6), 102-109.
  • Barbiery, B. (2014). Aviation English: History and pedagogy. Journal of
    Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes, 2
    (4), 615-623
  • Baron, R. (n. d.). Barriers to effective communication: Implications for the cockpit. AirlineSafety.com
  • Barry, W. S. (1969). The language of aviation. London: Chatto & Windus inassociation with the British Broadcasting Corp.
  • Barshi, I. (1997). Effects of linguistic properties and message length on misunderstandings in aviation communication (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (Dissertation No. 9812849)
  • Barshi, I. (1998). Misunderstandings in voice communication: Effects of fluency in a second language. In A. F. Healy & L.E. Bourne Jr. (Eds.). Foreign Language Learning: Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention (pp. 161–192). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Barshi, I., & Chute, R. (2001). Cross wires: What do pilots and controllers know about each other’s job? Flight Safety Australia5, 3, 58.
  • Barshi, I., Farris, C. (2013). Misunderstandings in ATC communication: Language, cognition, and experimental methodology. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
  • Barshi, I., Healy, A. F. & Schneider, V. I. (2004). Effects of instruction modality and readback on accuracy in following navigation commands. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10, 245-257.
  • Bellorini, A., & Vanderhaegen, F. (1995). Communication and cooperation analysis in air traffic control. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, OH.
  • Bieswanger, M. (2013). Applied linguistics and air traffic control: Focus on language
    awareness and intercultural communication. In S. Hansen-Schirra & M. Karin
    (Eds.), Aviation communication: Between theory and practice. Frankfurt
    am Main: Lang. 15-30.
  • Bieswanger, M. (2016). Aviation English: Two distinct specialised registers? In:  C. Schubert & C. Sanchez-Stockhammer (Eds.), Variational text linguistics: Revisiting register in English (67-85). Berlin: DeGruyter.
  • Billings, C. E., & Cheaney, E. S. (1981). Information transfer problems in the aviation system. NASA Tech. Paper 1875.
  • Bites Gonçalvez, S. S. (2017). Open to talk – emergências: um glossário português/inglês para as comunicações radiotelefônicas entre pilotos e controladores de tráfego aéreo. (Master thesis). Brasília: Departamento de Línguas Estrangeiras e Tradução, Universidade de Brasília, 116 f.
  • Bocorny, A. E. (2008). Descrição das unidades especializadas poliléxicas nominais no âmbito da aviação: Subsídios para o ensino de inglês para fins específicos (ESP) (Doctoral dissertation). Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
  • Bocorny, A. E. (2010). Ensino da terminologia da aviação para pilotos iniciantes: O contexto da comunicação especializada e o contexto da comunicação em uma sala de aula de ESP [The teaching of aviation terminology to ab initio pilots: The specialized communication context and the communication context in the ESP classroom]. Aviation in Focus, 1 (1), 12-20.
  • Bocorny, A. E. (2011). Panorama dos estudos sobre a linguagem da aviação [Overview of studies about language and aviation]. Revista brasileira de linguística aplicada, 11 (4), 963-986.
  • Boer, L. C., Harsveld, M., & Hermans, P. H. (1997). The selective listening task as a test for pilots and air traffic controllers. Military Psychology, 9 (2), 137-149.
  • Bonifácio, E. (2015). Critérios de avaliação de livro didático para o ensino-aprendizagem de inglês para controladores de tráfego aéreo brasileiros: uma proposta de checklist [Criteria for evaluation of textbooks designed for English language teaching to Brazilian air traffic controllers: A checklist proposal] (Master thesis). Universidade de Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo.
  • Borowska, A. (2017). Aeronautical English: An analysis of selected communication strategies used by native English speakers. Proceedings of the National Aviation University, Kiev: Indeks Copernicus, 139–146.
  • Borowska, A. (2017). Avialinguistics: The study of language for aviation purposes. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, http://dx.doi.org/10.3726/b11037.
  • Borowska, A. (2017). Decoding negation in aeronautical discourse. In Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny, no. 3/2017, Warsaw, 366–379.
  • Borowska, A. (2017). Dyferencjacja zadań badawczych awialingwistyki na tle bieżących potrzeb lotnictwa [Various research tasks of Avialinguistics against current aviation needs]. ingwistyka Stosowana – Applied Linguistics – Angewandte Linguistik. Przegląd/Review, No. 23, Tom 3/2017, Warsaw, 1–14.
  • Borowska, A. (2017). Is there any dominant culture in global aeronautical settings?  СТРАТЕГІЇ МІЖКУЛЬТУРНОЇ КОМУНІКАЦІЇ В МОВНІЙ ОСВІТІ СУЧАСНОГО ВНЗ, Збірник матеріалів ІІІї Міжнародної науковопрактичної конференціїМІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ ДЕРЖАВНИЙ ВИЩИЙ НАВЧАЛЬНИЙ ЗАКЛАД «КИЇВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ЕКОНОМІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ імені ВАДИМА ГЕТЬМАНА», Kiev, 137–144. 
  • Borowska, A. (2017). Nauczanie angielskiej frazeologii lotniczej [Teaching Aviation English Standard Phraseology]. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, 24, 191-203.
  • Borowska, A. (2018). A multilingual speaker in global aviation communication. Journal of Research into Multilingualism, 1, 19-28.
  • Borowska, A. (2021). Terms in an aircraft mechanic’s professional life. Academic Journal of Modern Philology, 13, 51-59.
  • Borowska, A. & Enright, A. (Eds.) (2016). Studi@ Naukowe 29: Changing perspectives on Aviation English training. Warsaw: Uniwersytet Warszawski.
  • Boschen, A. C., & Jones, R. K. (2004). Aviation language problem: improving pilot-controller communication. Proceedings of IPCC ’04: Professional Communication Conference (pp. 291 – 299). Minneapolis, MN.
  • Bourgeois-Bougrine, S., Normier, V., Mollard, R., Ferrante, O., & Pouliquen, Y. (2007). Linguistic factors in the overall aviation safety framework. Proceedings of ISAP ’07: 14th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Dayton, OH.
  • Bowles, H. (2014). How about getting those guys in the tower to speak English? Miscommunication, ELF and Aviation Safety. Textus, 1, 85-100, doi: 10.7370/77487
  • Bratanic, M. (1999). Aviation English within an ESP context. In T. Božena, M. Davies, J. Jemeršic (Eds.), English  for  specific  purposes: contradictions  and balances (pp. 79-84). Conference Proceedings. The British Council.
  • Breul, C. (2013). Language in aviation: The relevance of linguistics and relevance theory. LSP Journal, 4 (1), 71-86.
  • Bullock, N. (2015). Wider considerations in teaching speaking of English in the context of aeronautical communications. IATEFL ESPSIG Journal, 45, 4-11.
  • Bullock, N. (2015). Defining meaningful material for the teaching of English for
    aeronautical communications. In A. Borowska & A. Enright, A. (Eds.) Changing
    perspectives on Aviation English training. Warsaw : Uniwersytet Warszawski.
  • Bullock, N. (2016). Assessment literacy in ESP: The case of aviation English.
    IATEFL Testing Evaluation and Assessment SIG Workshop (Aigle). October 29
  • Bullock, N. (2017). Learning and testing alignment: Towards positive washback. International Civil Aviation English Association Workshop (ICAEA), 17.
  • Bullock, N. (2017). A re-evaluation of washback for learning and testing language in aeronautical communications. International Civil Aviation English Association Workshop (ICAEA), 19.
  • Bullock, N. (2019). Validating new perspectives and methodologies for learning and teacher training in English for aeronautical communications (pp.79-93). In S. Papadima-Sophocleous, E. K. Constantinou, C. N. Giannikas (Eds.), ESP teaching and teacher education: Current theories and practices. Voillans, France: Research-publishing.net, DOI: 10.14705/rpnet.2019.33.927
  • Bullock, N., & Kay, M. (2017). Reviewing 10+ years of the ICAO LPRs. International Civil Aviation English Association Workshop (ICAEA), 8.
  • Burian, B.K., Barshi, I., & Dismukes, R.K. (2005). Center we have a problem: Emergency and abnormal situations in aviation. Presentation given at the 13th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Oklahoma City, OK.
  • Burian, B.K., Barshi, I., & Dismukes, R.K. (2005). The challenge of emergency and abnormal situations. NASA Technical Memorandum 2005-213462. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.
  • Bürki-Cohen, J. (1995). An analysis of tower (ground) controller-pilot voice communications (DOT/FA/4AR-9619/, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-41). Washington, DC: Office of Research and Development.
  • Bürki-Cohen, J. (1995). Say again? How complexity and format of air traffic control instructions affect pilot recall. Proceedings of 40th Annual Air Traffic Control Association Conference. Las Vegas, NV.
  • Burnfield, J., & Robert, R. (1999). Air traffic control English language project, Vol. 1: Identifying basic English language proficiency for international air traffic controllers. Report prepared for the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration by the Human Resources Research Organization. Alexandria, VA.
  • Burnfield, J., & Robert, R. (1999). Air traffic control English language project, Vol. 2: An analysis and validation of language proficiency measurement models. Report prepared for the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration by the Human Resources Research Organization. Alexandria, VA.
  • Burnfield, J., & Robert, R. (2000). English language proficiency of international air traffic controllers: A review and guidelines for appropriate measures. Report prepared for FAA.
  • Cahyani, A.P., & Drajati, N.A. (2017). English communication problems and needs from social engagement perspective as experienced by airport passenger-handlers. English Education: Jurnal Tadris Bahasa Inggris, 10 (2), 179-193.
  • Campbell-Laird, K. (n.d.). An analysis of aviation communications, aviation English, and methodology. Berns Prelim, 1-25.
  • Campbell-Laird, K. (2004). Aviation English: A review of the language of international civil aviation. In J. Williams (Ed.), International Professional Communication Conference(pp. 253-261). Pitscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
  • Campbell-Laird, K. (2006). Pedagogical approaches to aviation phraseology and communication training in collegiate flight programs. Collegiate Aviation Review, 24 (1), 25-41.
  • Campbell-Laird, K. (2006). Pedagogical approaches to aviation phraseology and communication training in collegiate flight programs. (Doctoral dissertation). Purdue University: West Lafayette, IN.
  • Cardosi, K.M. (1993). An analysis of en route controller-pilot voice communications (Report No. DOT/FAA/RD-93/11). Washington, DC: FAA Office of Research and Development.
  • Cardosi, K. M. (1994). An analysis of tower (local) controller-pilot voice communications (Report No. DOT/FAA/RD-94/15). Washington, DC: Research and Development Service, Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a283718.pdf
  • Cardosi, K. M., Brett, B. E., & Han, S. (1996). An analysis of TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) controller-pilot voice communications (Report No. DOT/FAA/AR-96/66). Washington, DC: Research and Development Service, Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved from https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/8711
  • Cardosi, K.M., Falzarano, P., & Han, S. (1998). Pilot-controller communication errors: An analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports (DOT/FAA/AR-98/17). Washington, DC: FAA Office of Research and Development.
  • Castro, A., Andrade, C., Silva, F., & Silva, G. (2013). The importance of the English and Spanish languages in civil aviation training. Aviation In Focus – Journal Of Aeronautical Sciences, 4 (2).
  • Carthew, A. (2008, October). Lost for words. Orient Aviation, 46-48.
  • Chatham, R. (2004). Fifty years of aviation English. Proceedings of ICAO Aviation Language Symposium.
  • Chatham, R. (2004). The oral proficiency interview. Proceedings of ICAO Aviation Language Symposium.
  • Chatham, R. et al. (1999). Language tasks in air traffic control English language project (ATCELP) 1: Identifying basic English language proficiency for international air traffic controllers (FR-EADD-99-62). HumRRO/FAA.
  • Chatzi. (2019). The Diagnosis of Communication and Trust in Aviation Maintenance (DiCTAM) Model. Aerospace6(11), 120. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6110120
  • Chatzi, A.V., Martin, W., Bates, P. & Murray, P. (2019). The unexplored link between communication and trust in aviation maintenance practice. Aerospace, 6 (6), 66, https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6060066
  • Chen, W. (2016). A cognitive study of preposition ellipsis in Radiotelephony Communication. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 6, 390-400.
  • China Civil Aviation. (2006). Air/ground communication and flight safety. China Civil Aviation, 2006 (1).
  • Chini, M. R. (2014). Ensino-aprendizagem de Inglês para o Controlador de Tráfego Aéreo Brasileiro: Em busca de novos rumos [Teaching and learning English to Brazilian air traffic controllers: Looking for new routes]. (Master thesis). Universidade de Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo.
  • Choi, S-H. (2014). Designing ESP curriculum for EFL learners at College of NavigationJournal of Navigation and Port Research, 38 (2), 127-134. DOI : htp:/dx.doi.org/10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.2.127
  • Chiu, C-Y. (2004). Effectiveness of implementing computer-assisted language learning technology in the English for specific purposes training program (Doctoral dissertation). Lynn University, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Churcher, G. E., Atwell, E. S., & Souter, C. (1996). Dialogues in air traffic control. In: Proceedings of TWLT 11 – the 11th Twente Workshop on Language Technology.
  • Churcher, G. E., Atwell, E. S., & Souter, C. (1997). The semantic/pragmatic annotation of an air traffic control corpus for use in speech recognition. In M. Ljung (Ed.), Corpus-based studies in English: Papers from the seventeenth international conference on English language research on computerized corpora (ICAME 17). Stockholm, May 15-19, 1996 (pp. 353-373). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Churcher, G, Atwell, E, & Souter, C. (1997). Using a commercial speech recogniser within the domain of Air Traffic Control. WEB-SLS: World Wide Web Journal of Language and Speech, pp.97-103.
  • Civil Aviation Authority. (2007). ICAO language proficiency: Impact assessment of the introduction of International Civil Aviation Organization language proficiency requirements for pilots. (PLD IA 01-07 / NPA-FCL 26). UK: CAA Personnel Licensing Department.
  • Clark, B. (2007). Plane talk: Flight attendant identity construction and inter-crew communication. (Master thesis). Queen Mary, University of London, U.K.
  • Clark, B. (2010). Constructing flight attendant identity in safety reports to a government agencyProceedings of the Summer School of Sociolinguistics, University of Edinburgh. 
  • Clark, B. (2013). Safety talk and service culture: Flight attendant discourse in commercial aviation. (PhD Thesis). Queen Mary, University of London, U.K.
  • Clark, B. (2017). Aviation English research project: Data analysis findings and best practice recommendations (Cap. 1375). West Sussex: UK CAA.
  • Clark, H. H., Morrow, D., & Rodvold, M. (1990). Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system (NASA-CR-188116, NAS 1.26:188116). Moffett Field, CA: NASA.
  • Coertze, S., Conradie, S., Burger, C., Huddlestone, K. (2013). Aviation English in South African airspaceStellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, 42, 41-62.
  • Cook, S. and Alexander, H. (2017). Good at listening operationally or good at tests? . International Civil Aviation English Association Workshop (ICAEA). 5
  • Cookson, S. (2009). Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline accidents involving linguistic factorsAustralian Review of Applied Linguistics, 32 (3), 22.1-22.14. DOI: 10.2104/aral0922
  • Cookson, S. (2011). “Tell them we are in emergency”: Linguistic factors contributing to the crash of Avianca Flight 052. Studies in Language and Culture, 2, 17-33.
  • Cookson, S. (2011). Zagreb, Tenerife And Cove Neck: Revisiting The Assumptions Underlying ICAO’s Language Proficiency Programme. Proceedings from the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp.26-31). Dayton, OH: Wright State University.
  • Cookson, S. (2012). Power distance and language anxiety during ab initio flight training of Japanese cadets in New Zealand. Proceedings of the Royal Aeronautical Society’s Aircraft Commander In The 21st Century Conference.
  • Cookson, S. & Kelly, M. (2012). Ready For Departure: An Introduction To The Pilot English Language Proficiency Test. Tokyo: Seizando-Shoten Publishing Co. Ltd.
  • Cookson, S. & Kelly, M. (2013). Ready For Departure: An Introduction To The Pilot English Language Proficiency Test – Workbook. Tokyo: Seizando-Shoten Publishing Co. Ltd.
  • Cummings, S. M. (2013). Comparison of voice and text ATC communications in the cockpit for ESL pilots (Master’s thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.(Dissertation/thesis No. 1547896). Retrieved from https://commons.erau.edu/edt/40/
  • Cushing, S. (1988). Language and communication-related problems of aviation safety. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Association for Applied Linguistics (San Francisco, CA, December 1987) and the International Congress of Psychology (24th, Sydney, Australia, August 1988).
  • Cushing, S. (1991). Social/cognitive mismatch as a source of fatal language errors: implications for standardization. Fourth ICAEA Forum on Aviation English Standards, Paris.
  • Cushing, S. (1994). Fatal words: Communication clashes and aircraft crashes. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  • Cushing, S. (1994). Plane speaking. VERBATIM: The Language Quarterly, 21 (2).
  • Cushing, S. (1995). Pilot-air traffic control communications: It’s not (only) what you say, it’s how you say it. Flight Safety Digest14 (7), 1-10.
  • Cutting, J. (2012). English for airport ground staff. English for Specific Purposes, 31 (1), 3-13.
  • Cutting, J. (2018). Airport English. In L. Woodrow (Ed.). Introducing course design in English for Specific Purposes. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Čada, O. (2016). Discourse analysis of air traffic phraseology. (Bachelor thesis). Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
  • Dai, L. & Li, D. (2016). A study of grammar in Radiotelephony English in classroomAdvances in Education Sciences, 10. Proceedings of  ICCE 2015 2nd International Conference on Creative Education (pp. 85-90). London, UK.
  • Dai, L. & Zhang, J. (2016). A study of adopting CLT in a university Radiotelephony English classroomAdvances in Education Sciences, 10. Proceedings of ICCE 2015 2nd International Conference on Creative Education (pp. 203-207). London, UK.
  • Day, B. (2002). Safe radiotelephony demands good discipline from all pilots and controllersICAO Journal, 57 (3).
  • Day, B. (2004). Heightened awareness of communication pitfalls can benefit safety. ICAO Journal, 59 (1).
  • Day, B. (2004) Annex 10 Standards and recommended practices.  Proceedings of ICAO Aviation Language Symposium.
  • Day, B. (2004). ICAO standards and recommended practices: An overview.  Proceedings of ICAO Aviation Language Symposium.
  • Day, B. (2004). Language testing in aviation: The stakes are high.  Proceedings of ICAO Aviation Language Symposium.
  • Delibo, J. A. (1993). A linguagem aeronáutica: um estudo do ato interativo na radiotelefonia da aviação civil. (Master thesis). Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Derby, R. (2010). Numbers are easy, numbers are hardAviation in Focus, 1 (1), 77-87.
  • Di Biase, M. J., & Gratton, F. (2015). Interpreting the speaking performance requirements of forward air controllers. H. Joyce & E. Thomson, (Eds.), Language in uniform: Language analysis and training for defence and policing purposes (pp. 2-17). Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
  • Dinçer, N., & Dinçer, R. (2021). The effect of a serious game on aviation vocabulary acquisition. International Journal of Serious Games, 8 (4), 49-63, http://dx.doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v8i4.464
  • Donnelly, J. (2002). Flight deck communication. Proceedings of ANZSASI 2002:  Regional Seminar of the Australia and New Zealand Societies of Air Safety Investigators. Canberra, Australia.
  • Doty, S., Shila, J., & Ducar, C. (2021). Aviation English in a bilingual context. Collegiate Aviation Review International (Proceedings of the 2021 UAA Annual Conference), 39 (2), 318-328. Retrieved from http://ojs.library.okstate.edu/osu/index.php/CARI/article/view/8409/7694
  • Douglas, D. (2002). But there’s not really an airplane!: Authenticity in language testing. In Proceedings of 30th JACET Summer Seminar, 2: New Perspectives in ESP (pp. 3-8). Japan Association of College English Teachers, Tokyo.
  • Douglas, D. (2003). English language testing in the context of Aviation English. Keynote Address, International Civil Aviation English Association. Luxembourg, 5-6 September.
  • Douglas, D. (2003). Assessing English for civil aviation: International values. Midwest Association of Language Testers, Purdue University, 18 October.
  • Douglas, D. (2004). Language tests can promote safer communications in international civil aviation operations. ICAO Journal, 1.
  • Douglas, D. (2004). Tests that demonstrate the language proficiency of aviation personnel can promote safer radiotelephony. ICAO Journal, 59.3, 17-18, 25-26.
  • Douglas, D. (2004). Assessing the language of international civil aviation: Issues of validity and impact.  Proceedings of the International Professional Communication Conference, IEEE Professional Communication Society (pp. 248-252). Minneapolis: IEEE.
  • Douglas, D. (2004). English language testing in the context of Aviation English. Paper presented at the International Civil Aviation Organization Language Symposium, Montreal, CA, 1 September.
  • Douglas, D. (2014). Nobody seems to speak English here today: Enhancing assessment and training in aviation English. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 2 (2), 1-12.
  • Downey, R., Suzuki, M., & Van Moere, A. (2010). High-stakes English-language assessments for aviation professionals: Supporting the use of a fully automated test of spoken-language proficiency. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 53 (1), 18-32. IEEE 10.1109/TPC.2009.2038734
  • Drury, C. G., & Ma, J. (2002). Language error analysis: Report on literature of aviation language errors and analysis of error databases. Federal Aviation Administration. University of Buffalo, State University of New York.
  • Drury, C. G., & Ma, J. (2003). Do language barriers result in aviation maintenance errors? Proceedings from Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting (pp. 46-50). Denver, Colorado, October. doi: 10.1177/154193120304700110
  • Drury, C. G. and Ma, J. (2003). Language errors in aviation maintenance: Year 1 interim report. Reports to William J. Hughes Technical Center, the Federal Aviation Administration under research grant #2002-G-025.
  • Drury, C. G., & Ma, J. (2004). Experiments on language errors in aviation maintenance. Proceedings from Human Factors and Ergonomics 46th Annual Meeting.
  • Dusenbury, M., & Bjerke, E. (2013). Predictive power of English testing: Training international flight students. The Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research, 23(1). Retrieved from http://commons.erau.edu/jaaer/vol23/iss1/5
  • ICAEA. (2002). Proceedings of the 8th International Seminar. Warsaw, Poland. Proceedings published by the Centre de linguistique appliquée of the University of Franche-Comte.
  • ICAO. (1998). Human factors training manual (Doc 9683-AN/950).  Montréal, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • ICAO. (2000). Human factors guidelines for air traffic management (ATM) systems (Doc 9758-AN/966). Montréal, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • ICAO. (2004). ICAO Journal59 (1).
  • ICAO. (2004). Manual on the implementation of the language proficiency requirements (Doc 9835-AN/453). Montréal, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • ICAO (2007) Implementation Checklist. Second ICAO Aviation Language Symposium, Montréal.
  • ICAO. (2009). Guidelines for Aviation English training programmes (Cir 323-AN/185). Montréal, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • ICAO. (2009). Language testing criteria for global harmonization (Cir 318-AN/180). Montréal, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • ICAO. (2010). Manual on the implementation of the language proficiency requirements (Doc 9835-AN/453) (2nd ed.). Montréal, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • Intemann, F. (2008). Taipei ground, confirm your last transmission was in English…? – An analysis of Aviation English as a world language. In C. Gnutzmann,  & F. Intemann (Eds.), The globalisation of English and the English language classroom. 2nd ed. Tübingen: Narr, 76-93.
  • Ishihara, N. and Prado, M. (2021). The negotiation of meaning in Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: A corpus-informed discursive approach. The Modern Language Journal, 105: 639-654. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12718
  • Jalal, T., Ariff, R., Said, A-M., & Ishak, M. (2014). Blended learning approach to licensed aircraft engineer trainees: Determinants and satisfaction. International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, 22 (3), 26-31.
  • Jiajia, H. (2019). A study of communication strategy in pilot’s interview for abroad training from the perspective of SAT. US-China Foreign Language, 17 (10), 451-455, doi:10.17265/1539-8080/2019.10.002
  • Jitkat, T., Tharawoot, Y., & Paisart, W. (2021). Foreign passengers’ satisfaction of Thai ground staff’s English oral communication ability and brand loyalty of a Thai airline. Journal of Liberal Arts Prince of Songkla University, , 13 (2), 66-88, DOI: 10.14456/jlapsu.2021.4 Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/journal-la/article/view/254226
  • Jones, R.K. (2003). Miscommunication between pilots and air traffic control. Language Problems & Language Planning, 27 (3), 233–248.
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51 Responses to Aviation English Reference List

  1. Inna says:

    You could also hive a link to our paper https://ojs.library.okstate.edu/osu/index.php/CARI/article/view/7911
    Explicit, Implicit, and Blended Vocabulary Instruction: Efficiency in an Aviation English Course

  2. zvbiygslfo says:


  3. This is a great resource Natália and I see you’re updating it regularly – thanks for this!

  4. Airlines, Pilots and Cabin Crew – Join us in London, UK for a world exclusive Advanced Language Proficiency Training for your ICAO Aviation English/English for Cabin Crew requirements… All our language proficiency courses include practice in a flight simulator… visit our website:

  5. Source says:

    Howdy very nice website!! Guy .. Excellent ..
    Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds
    additionally? I’m happy to search out so many helpful information here in the post, we’d like
    develop extra strategies on this regard, thanks for sharing.
    . . . . .

  6. Gareth Williams says:

    Well done Natália, you have done a great service here! Thanks from a really grateful MA student! 🙂

  7. Shahida khoso says:

    Hi will any one tell me scope of english avition testss in pakistan

  8. Shamala Paramasivam says:

    Hi, the list is pretty exhaustive! Thank you for this great effort. It is of immense help for researchers working in this area. You have done the search for us! I would like to add a paper that I published in 2011. It takes on a discourse perspective and has applications and implications for aviation English testing and training. Here it is:

    Paramasivam, S. (2011). Rapport management in air traffic control in Malaysian aviation discourse. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication. 21(1), 77-96.

    Associate Prof Dr Shamala Paramasivam
    Dept of English, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication,
    Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang,
    Selangor, Malaysia

  9. Terence Gerighty says:

    Dear Natalia,
    Thanks for the excellent work you’re doing pulling together sources for Aviation English and links with colleagues in the field.

    Allow me to add to the bibliography –
    @English for Cabin Crew’ by T.Gerighty, published by Heinle. Cengage Learning (2011)

  10. Neil Bullock says:

    Hi Natalie
    Do you have an e-mail for contact off list? I would just like to discuss potential articles for this site before I submit. Thanks.

  11. David says:

    Love to make contact. I am a Melbournian based in Rio teaching teaching.

  12. thomas Macallister says:

    I am trying to get in touch with Michael Kelly. Does anyone have his contact info.
    Thanks.. Thomas Macallister – JAPAN AIRLINES / SKYMARK

    • Simon Cookson says:

      Hi Thomas,
      Are you still trying to contact Michael Kelly? I have his contact details, if Natalia can put us in touch off list.

  13. Simon Cookson says:

    Greetings from Tokyo!
    The 2nd edition of ICAO Doc 9835 can be downloaded from Skybrary at this URL:

  14. Simon Cookson says:

    Hi Natalia,
    Here are a few more references for your list.

    Cookson, S. (2012) Power distance and language anxiety during ab initio flight training of Japanese cadets in New Zealand. Proceedings of the Royal Aeronautical Society’s Aircraft Commander In The 21st Century Conference.

    Cookson, S. & Kelly, M. (2012). Ready For Departure: An Introduction To The Pilot English Language Proficiency Test. Tokyo: Seizando-Shoten Publishing Co. Ltd.

    Cookson, S. & Kelly, M. (2013). Ready For Departure: An Introduction To The Pilot English Language Proficiency Test – Workbook. Tokyo: Seizando-Shoten Publishing Co. Ltd.


    • Thank you, Simon. Will add them shortly.

    • Paul Mellor says:

      I am unable to find these resources, but I’m very interested to read what steps are being taken in Japan to assess language proficiency. Is there anything available online (a sample test for candidates perhaps?)

      • Hi, Paul. I don’t know much about the situation in Japan, but let us hope Simon Cookson will drop by. =)

      • Simon Cookson says:

        Hi Paul,
        The Japanese version of the ICAO test has 2 sections: listening comprehension and interview section. There’s a short description of each section in the introduction to our textbook, “Ready for Departure”, which is available from Amazon Japan:


        Past questions for the listening section of the test are included at this JCAB website:


        Be warned, the links are in Japanese, and there are many other tests on this website! Look for the last 2 files in each section:

        Question files have “-1” in the title, like this: “21-1.航空英語能力証明(用紙)”

        And audio files have “-2” in the title, like this: “21-2.航空英語能力証明(音声)”


    • Paul Mellor says:

      Thanks very much for that Simon- I found the mp3s by rolling the cursor over the links , and the pdf associations are clear enough. Very interesting.to see how this works- are there any sample interviews available?

      • Simon Cookson says:

        Hi Paul. I don’t know of any sample interviews. That’s one reason why Michael Kelly and I wrote the “Ready for Departure” textbooks, so that pilots in Japan would have some prep materials for the ICAO test. BTW, what is the focus of your MA?

      • Paul Mellor says:

        Hi Simon- My MA is in TESOL, particularly teacher development and EIL, but a majority of my work is in all areas of testing and I’m often at conferences and workshops etc. So I’m very interested in how various states are addressing/interpreting the ALTE/ICAO guidelines.

      • Simon Cookson says:

        Good luck with your studies, Paul. Hopefully we can meet up at a conference some time.

  15. Neil Bullock says:

    Like Paul, a great reference list for my MA studies too, particularly teaching and testing in AE! Some of the ICAO symposium resources are no longer available. Any (quickish) ideas on how we could access these?

  16. Paul Mellor says:

    Hi Natalia,

    This reference list is very useful for my current MA… thanks for these.
    Could you add our test to the list please? URL is http://www.anglo-continental.com/en/uk/courses/aviation/aviation-test.htm


  17. Carolina says:

    Hi Natalia,

    This is a great list. You may consider adding a paper I published recently: http://www.revel.inf.br/files/4b416887c9e8c51b14c95daccc4f39d5.pdf


  18. Simon Cookson says:

    Hi Natalia,
    This is a very impressive list of resources, and it’s really helpful to be able to access so many papers directly from one website. One small thing: could you please change my name from “Cookson, G” to “Cookson, S”.

    • Sorry for the typo and congratulations on the article. If you publish anything else on this topic, please let me know.

      • Simon Cookson says:

        Many thanks, Natalia.
        Here’s another paper that you may want to add to the list:

        Cookson, S. (2011). Zagreb, Tenerife And Cove Neck: Revisiting The Assumptions Underlying ICAO’s Language Proficiency Programme. Proceedings from the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp.26-31). Dayton, OH: Wright State University.

      • Thank you. 🙂 Keep’em coming!

  19. WOW! Great Job!! Just a note: can you please amend “Alizieri, T.L.” to “Alizieri, S.” (my name is Sara – I guess T.L. stands for “Tesi di Laurea” as it’s my MA thesis.)
    Thanks a lot!

  20. Martu says:

    So helpful in my studies! Thanks a lot 🙂 Greetings from Poland!

  21. Henry Emery says:

    Great work, Natalia. Thanks for making this available. I look forward to seeing the list grow in the months and years to come.
    Very best

    • Thank you! It’s great to see you here. Have you published the paper you presented at the BAAL Testing Evaluation and Assessment SIG Conference? I’d love to add it here. =)

  22. Matilde V. R. Scaramucci says:

    Congratulations, Natália! A great contribution!

  23. You may consider some of my publications (including a dissertation) on Aviation English. References can be found on my Linkedin site for Cliff Noble

  24. Pingback: Hello! | Aviation English Hub

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